黑手党”翻译探幽 (上)-比蓝翻译

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查看: 44|回复: 0| 发表于 2018-1-8 18:24:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式|
“黑手党”是广为接受的译法,但其中涉及的一些历史和翻译问题给这三个字画上了问号。
Mafia与“黑手”的关联很可能是一些黑手党成员在勒索信落款处画黑手的标志:
Several mafiosi exploited this fact, and found opportunities for their traditional occupations, they began to extort fellow Italians who had a certain amount of money...This was done anonymously by delivering threatening letters demanding money, the letters were signed with a crudely drawn Black Hand symbol.
(http://mafiatoday.com/mafia-families-gangs-gangsters/mafia-gangs-early-20th-century/the-black-hand/)
1910年一封Black Hand勒索信的落款。(图片来源:http://www.chicagocop.com/history/specialized-units/black-hand-squad/)
然而,Mafia并不等同于Black Hand。根据“维基百科”网站:
Black Hand (Italian: Mano Nera) was a type of Italian and Italian-American extortion racket. It was a method of extortion, not a criminal organization as such, though gangsters of Camorra and the Mafia practiced it.
可见,Black Hand只是一种敲诈手段,并非一个犯罪组织,尽管Camorra(克莫拉,类似黑手党的秘密社团)与Mafia的成员也会从事这种行为。
下面的文字更详细地介绍了Mafia与Black Hand的区别:
Some members of the Mafia gang were arrested in connection with extortion, kidnapping and bomb throwing, all typical Black Hand crimes. These incidents, however, were minor extensions of their much larger criminal activities. An argument that cannot be applied to most Black Hand offenders.
The trail left by the crime wave draws a picture of an unorganized body, with no central leadership or hierarchical structure. Practiced by individuals, small groups of criminals and sometimes more established larger gangs, they all worked without need of knowledge of other Black Handers.
(https://www.gangrule.com/gangs/the-black-hand)
概括来说,黑手党的犯罪活动的内容大于Black Hand犯罪,与黑手党不同,Black Hand犯罪人员缺乏组织和层级结构,多为个人或从属于小型组织。
两者的区别还不仅限于此。
根据《大不列颠百科全书》网站:
Black Hand, Italian Mano Nera, any of several extortion rackets run by immigrant Sicilian and Italian gangsters in the Italian communities of New York City, Chicago, New Orleans, Kansas City, and other U.S. cities from about 1890 to 1920. It consisted of sending threatening notes to local merchants and other well-to-do persons—notes printed with black hands, daggers, or other menacing symbols and extorting money on pain of death or destruction of property. The Black Hand declined with the entry of Prohibition and big-moneyed bootlegging.
(https://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Hand-American-criminal-organization)
首先,《大不列颠百科全书》网站对Black Hand的介绍全文都没有提及Mafia。其次,从这段文字可知,Black Hand分子存在于美国一些城市的意大利社区,活跃时期为1890到1920年。与中世纪后期发源于意大利西西里的Mafia相比,Black Hand在时间和空间上的范围都有较大差异。
“达拉斯新闻”网站对The Black Hand一书的书评中也提到Talty没有充分说明Black Hand与Mafia在规模和存续时间上的区别:
Talty is not as clear as he could be at times in distinguishing the Black Hand, for the most part an organization that victimized Italian-Americans, and the Mafia, a much larger-scale criminal organization that had already existed for centuries in Sicily.
(https://www.dallasnews.com/arts/books/2017/09/06/black-hand-ruled-new-york-real-life-untouchables-tale)
“今日美国”网站对这本书的书评包括以下叙述:
Before the Mafia captured the American crime spotlight in the 1920s, there was the Society of the Black Hand, which made ends meet by terrorizing and extorting fellow Italians, mainly, among them tenor Enrico Caruso and Italian-American business owners. The Black Hand even targeted Mafiosi in New York and Chicago — not exactly easy pickings.
(https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/books/2017/04/23/the-black-hand-the-epic-war-between-a-brilliant-detective-and-the-deadliest-secret-society-in-american-history-book-review/100373672/)
可见,the Society of the Black Hand在美国早于Mafia出现,甚至还敲诈过纽约和芝加哥的黑手党。
综上,Black Hand,即“黑手”与Mafia确有交集,但并不等同于、也不能代表Mafia。
将Mafia译为“黑手党”确能体现出犯罪分子心黑手狠,从历史真实性上来评判也非凭空杜撰,但这一译法没有区分Mafia与Black Hand的区别。
其实,翻译Mafia最核心的问题其实不是分清其与Black Hand的差异。翻译Mafia首先会出现的问题是对焦不准,用解释性文字代替组织名称,即这里的翻译对象。
“黑手党”所指的组织其实有两个称呼。
Mafia是媒体和公众对某一犯罪组织的称呼,源自mafie,即“受雇于在外地主的私人军队”:
The Mafia owed its origins and drew its members from the many small private armies, or mafie, that were hired by absentee landlords to protect their landed estates from bandits in the lawless conditions that prevailed over much of Sicily through the centuries.(https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mafia)
而这个组织的成员自己称这个组织为Cosa Nostra。这个意大利语表述的英文意思是Our Affair。
无论是以mafia还是Cosa Nostra为出发点翻译这一犯罪组织,都不会得到一个带有类似“黑手”这样作恶含义的名称,也就是说仅从这个组织的名称本身来看,无论是组织内部还是外部的人,提起“黑手党”的时候都不涉及“黑手”这个意思。
所谓“黑手”除了是因为将Mafia与Black Hand混淆外,更多的可能是用这一组织的行为以及人们对这一组织的认知和评价取代了这一组织的名称。从翻译角度来说,这种含有价值取向的替代有失客观,是不合适的。
接下来面临的选择是以Mafia还是Cosa Nostra为翻译对象。
笔者认为,翻译任何组织的名称都要以被该组织成员认可和使用的名称为基础,而非社会和他人对其的称呼。前者才是这个组织真正的名称,体现组织的追求和理念等,后者经过了外界处理加工,失去了名称本来的含义。
Cosa Nostra,即Our Affair,或可译为“吾众之事”。这一译法显然没有“黑手党”形象和戏剧化,但如前文所述,以翻译标准衡量,“黑手党”有不少问题。也许有人认为译文吸引人就可以了,不必如此详尽地考虑是否忠于原文,但笔者认为要动听还是原则,要“放飞自我”还是扎根原文是每个译者必须思考的问题。
“黑手党”中的“党”字也颇为可疑,这样的译法也出现在“三K党”等表达上。“党”字的问题下期分析。
以上内容转自深圳比蓝翻译公司官网。

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