工程建设标准英文版翻译细则(试行)

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为规范工程建设标准英文版的翻译工作,根据《工程建设标准翻译出版工作管理办法》,制定本细则。
1 翻译质量及技术要求
1.1 基本要求
1)工程建设标准的翻译必须忠于原文,并遵守完整、准确、规范、统一的原则。
2)标准的译文应当完整。标准的前引部分、正文部分、补充部分都应全文翻译;脚注、附录、图、表、公式以及相应的文字都应翻译并完整地反映在译文中,不得误译、缺译、漏译、跳译。
3)强制性条文的翻译必须准确无误,译文用黑体字注明。
4)译文的内容、术语应当准确,语法应当恰当,行文流畅。
5)标准中的典型语句、术语、计量单位、专业词汇应当前后统一。
6)标准翻译稿的幅面、版面、格式、字体等应当规范并符合《工程建设标准英文版出版印刷规定》,图表、公式的编号应与原文相一致。
1.2 具体要求
1)数字表达应符合英文表达习惯。
2)标准中的符号、代号、计量单位、公式应直接引用原文,时间、货币、标点符号可按英文惯例翻译或表达。
3)日期按译文语言,应采用公历,按月、日、年顺序排列(例如,December 1,2006)。
4)术语的英文翻译,应以中文版中的英文术语为准。如果中文版中英文术语表达不准确或出现错误,应由翻译人员与编制组共同商议后做出必要修正,并在译文中注明。
5)标准名称应以中文版的英文译名为准。如果中文版标准名称的英文译文不准确,翻译人员可向翻译出版办公室提出书面修改建议。
6)人员的中文姓名译成英文时,采用标准汉语拼音。外籍人员的姓名应按其原姓名或相应的英文姓名表达。地名、团体名、机构名,使用惯用译名。无惯用译名的,可自行翻译,必要时附注原文。
7)法律、法规、规范性文件等名称应采用官方或既定译法,其他文件、著作、文献名称采用既定译法。
8)缩写词首次出现时,应附注全称译文。经前文注释过或意义明确的缩写词,可以在译文中直接使用。
9)译文的章节条款项的编号,应与中文版一致。
10)对我国独有的直译较难的词,可以意译,也可采用汉语拼音,必要时可加附注。附注可采用两种方法,一是在第一次译出处附注,二是在译文的适当地方统一附注。
11)译文的句式结构或修辞方式应符合英语的表达习惯。
2 典型用语的翻译
2.1 封面用语
1)中华人民共和国国家标准National Standard of the People’s Republic of China
2)中华人民共和国行业标准Professional standard of the People’s Republic of China
3)×××工程建设地方标准××× Provincial Standard for Engineering Construction
4)×××发布Issued by ×××
例如:Issued by Ministry of Construction of the People’s Republic of China
5)中华人民共和国建设部、国家质量监督检验检疫总局联合发布Jointly issued by Ministry of Construction and General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China
6)中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部、国家质量监督检验检疫总局联合发布Jointly issued by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China
7)××××年××月××日发布(例如,2006 年5月23日发布) Issued on M D,Y (Issued on May 23,2006)
8)××××年××月××日实施(例如,2006 年5月23日实施)Implemented on M D,Y (Implemented on May 23,2006)
9)××××版×××× edition
2.2 扉页用语
1)主编部门Chief Development Department
2)主编单位Chief Development Organization
3)批准部门Approval Department
4)施行日期Implementation date
2.3 发布通知或公告用语
1)中华人民共和国建设部公告Announcement of Ministry of Construction of the People’s Republic of China
2)中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部公告Announcement of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China
3)关于发布国家标准×××的通知Notice on publishing the national standard of ×××
4)关于发布国家标准×××局部修订的公告Announcement of publishing the partial revision of national standard ×××
5)现批准×××为国家标准,标准编号为××××××has been approved as a national standard with a serial number of ×××
6)×××为强制性条文,必须严格执行××× are compulsory provisions and must be enforced strictly
7)原×××同时废止××× shall be abolished simultaneously
8)本标准(规范)共分××章,其主要内容为The standard(code) comprises ×× chapters with the main contents as follows
9)本标准(规范)由建设部负责管理和对强制性条文的解释Ministry of Construction is in charge of the administration of this standard (code) and the explanation of the compulsory provisions
10)由×××负责具体技术内容的解释××× is responsible for the explanation of specific technical contents
11) 本规范由×××组织×××出版发行Authorized by ×××, this code is published and distributed by ×××
12)继续有效be valid as usual
13)复审Review
14)备案Put on records
15)备案号Record Number
16)附加说明Additional explanation
2.4 前言用语
1)前言Foreword
2)根据建设部建标[×××] ×××号《关于印发“×××年工程建设标准制订、修订计划”的通知》的要求According to the requirements of Document Jian Biao [×××]NO. ××× issued by Ministry of Construction (MOC) - “Notice on Printing the Development and Revision Plan of National Engineering Construction Standards in ×××”
3)本规范以黑体字标志的条文为强制性条文,必须严格执行The provision(s) printed in bold type is (are) compulsory one (ones) and must be enforced strictly
4)请各单位在执行本标准过程中,注意总结经验,积累资料,随时将有关意见和建议寄交×××All relevant organizations are kindly requested to sum up and accumulate your experiences in actual practices during the process of implementing this code. The relevant opinions and advice,  whenever necessary, can be posted or passed on to ×××
5)参编单位Participating Development Organizations
6)参加单位Participating Organizations
7)主要起草人Chief Drafting Staff
8)日常管理Routine management
9)具体解释Specific explanation
2.5 目次用语
1)目次(目录)Contents
2)总则General provisions
3)术语和符号Terms and symbols
4)附录Appendix
5)本规范用词说明Explanation of Wording in this code
2.6 总则用语
1)为了×××,制定本规范This code is formulated with a view to ×××
2)安全适用Safety and usability
3)经济合理Economy and rationality
4)本标准(规范)适用于……This standard (code) is applicable to ……
5)本标准(规范)不适用于……This standard (code) is not applicable to ……
6)新建、扩建、改建Construction, extension and renovation
7)除应符合本标准(规范)要求外,尚应符合国家现行有关标准(规范)的规定Not only the requirements stipulated in this standard (code), but also those in the current relevant ones of the nation shall be complied with
2.7 正文用语
1)必须  Must
2)严禁  Must not
3)Shall
4)不应Shall not
5)Should
6)不宜Should not
7)May
8)不可May not
9)符合下列规定(要求)Be in accordance with the following requirements
10)应符合×××的规定(要求)Shall meet the requirements of ×××
11)应按×××执行Shall comply with ×××
12)遵守下列规定(要求)Be in compliance with the following requirements
13)符合表×××的规定(要求)Be in accordance with those specified in Table ×××
14)按照表×××的规定(要求)确定Be determined according to those set out in Table ×××
15)按下式计算Be calculated according to the following equation
16)按下列公式计算Be calculated according to the following formulae
17)符合下列情况之一的,应……If one of the following requirements is met, …… shall ……
18)式中Where
19)Note
20)Figure or Fig.
21)大于Be larger than
22)小于Be less than
23) 等于Be equal
24)超过Exceed
25)国家现行有关标准Current relevant standard of the nation
26)现行国家标准Current national standard
27)一般规定(要求)General requirement
28)基本规定(要求)Basic requirement
29)特殊规定(要求)Particular requirement
2.8 本规范用词用语说明(译者按下列翻译)
1  为了便于在执行本规范条文时区别对待,对要求严格程度不同的用词说明如下:1. Words used for different degrees of strictness are explained as follows in order to mark the differences in executing the requirements in this code.
1) 表示很严格,非这样做不可的用词:1) Words denoting a very strict or mandatory requirement:
正面词采用“必须”,反面词采用“严禁”。“Must” is used for affirmation; “must not” for negation.
2) 表示严格,在正常情况均应这样做的用词:2) Words denoting a strict requirement under normal conditions:
正面词采用“应”,反面词采用“不应”或“不得”。“Shall” is used for affirmation; “shall not” for negation.
3) 表示允许稍有选择,在条件许可时首先这样做的用词:   3) Words denoting a permission of a slight choice or an indication of the most suitable choice when conditions permit:
正面词采用“宜”,反面词采用“不宜”;“Should” is used for affirmation; “should not” for negation.
4) 表示有选择,在一定条件下可以这样做的,采用“可”。4) “May” is used to express the option available, sometimes with the conditional permit.
2  规范中指定应按其他有关标准、规范执行时,写法为:“应符合……的规定”或“应按……执行”。2.“Shall comply with…”or “Shall meet the requirements of…”is used in this code to indicate that it is necessary to comply with the requirements stipulated in other relative standards and codes.
3. 标准化常用词的翻译
3.1 标准化及标准文件
1)标准化standardization
2)国际标准international standard
3)国家标准national standard
4)行业标准professional standard
5)地方标准provincial standard
6)企业标准company standard
7)规范code
8)技术规范technical code
9)通则general rule
10)规程specification
11)规则rule
12)强制性标准mandatory standard
13)推荐性标准voluntary standard
14)法规regulation
15)技术法规technical regulation
16)强制性条文compulsory provisions
3.2  标准文件的结构
1)目次content
2)前言foreword
3)范围scope
4)引用标准normative standard
5)术语terms
6)符号symbol
7)测试testing
8)试验test
9)试验方法test method
10)试验报告test report
11)分类classification
12)附录appendix
3.3 标准文件的层次划分
1)chapter
2)section
3)article
4)item
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