正当防卫 vs. 防卫过当,英文怎样表达?

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查看: 29|回复: 0| 发表于 2018-9-29 18:39:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式|
A road rage incident occurring in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, has become a trending topic on Chinese social media this week, when the driver of a BMW pulled a knife to attack a man riding anelectric bicycle. Unexpectedly, it was the BMW driver who turned out to be a victim of his own violence. Is this a case of “justifiable defence” or “undue defence”?
本周,江苏昆山发生的一起路怒事件在中国社交媒体上引发轩然大波,一名宝马车司机拔刀砍伤了一名骑电动车男子。结果情况发生了逆转,宝马司机由于自己的暴力行凶而被对方杀死(编者注:宝马司机在持刀砍伤骑车男子时,长刀掉落被骑车男子捡起,骑车男子持刀还击将宝马司机杀死)。这起事件到底是“正当防卫”还是“防卫过当”?
这个问题引发了网友的热烈讨论。那么,何谓“正当防卫”?“正当防卫”“防卫过当”等法律术语如何用英文表达?Yee君为大家提供《中华人民共和国刑法》(Criminal Law Of The People’s Republic Of China)中涉及到这些术语的中英文对照内容,以供学习参考:
第二十条
Article 20
为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。
An act that a person commits to stop an unlawful infringement in order to prevent the interests of the State and the public, or his own or other person's rights of the person, property or other rights from being infringed upon by the on-going infringement, thus harming the perpetrator, is justifiable defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility.
justifiable defence  正当防卫
infringement  n.侵犯;违反
infringe upon sth是固定搭配,表示侵害/侵犯权利、利益等;
on-going  正在进行的
perpetrator  作恶者、行凶者、犯罪者
“shall”在法律或半法律文件中,含有“本条款具有法律规定的指令性或强制性之意”。尤其是在经贸法律文本中,“shall”的译法种类繁多,通常被译为“须”“应”,有时被译成“应当”,也有时译成“要”“将”“可”,还有被译成“必须”。
正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
If a person's act of justifiable defence obviously exceeds the limits of necessity and causes serious damage, he shall bear criminal responsibility; however, he shall be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
criminal responsibility  刑事责任
mitigate  缓和;减轻
be exempted from  获豁免
对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。
If a person acts in defence against an on-going assault, murder, robbery, rape, kidnap or any other crime of violence that seriously endangers his personal safety, thus causing injury or death to the perpetrator of the unlawful act, it is not undue defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility.
undue defence  防卫过当
crime of violence  暴力犯罪
endanger  v. 危及;使遭到危险
unlawful act  不法行为;违法行为
防卫过当(undue defence)在百度百科中是这样定义的:
防卫过当,是指防卫行为明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的应当负刑事责任的犯罪行为。所谓防卫过当是指正当防卫行为超越了法律规定的防卫尺度,因而应当负刑事责任的情况。
防卫过当的概念在《中华人民共和国刑法》中并未被单独提出,而是随着正当防卫的历史发展而提出来的。
法律术语相关词汇
人民法院  People’s Court
中级人民法院(区、市级) the Intermediate People’s Court
高级人民法院(省级) the Higher People’s Court
最高人民法院   the Supreme People’s Court
人民检察院  the People’s Procuratorate
公安部  Ministry of Public Security
司法部  Ministry of Justice
犯罪嫌疑人  criminal suspect
控告人  accuser, complainant
原告  plaintiff
法官  judges
法警  bailiff; court police
律师  lawyer, attorney, counsel
(lawyer用得最为广泛,凡经过专业训练获得开业资格的无论哪种律师都可以称lawyer。由于lawyer一词使用太多,加上西方社会对律师时有讥讽和诽闻,这个词多少带有贬义,因此律师一般自称attorney。
attorney指由当事人授权处理法律事物的律师。
counsel是指给当事人出主意并代当事人在法庭说话的法律顾问或辩护律师,在法庭上,法官称呼参与审讯的律师也用counsel。)
辩护人  defender
辩护律师  defence attorney/lawyer
民事案件  civil case
民事诉讼  civil litigation
刑事案件  criminal case
刑事诉讼 criminal litigation
判决  judgement(用于民事、行政案件), determination(用于终审),sentence(用于刑事案),verdict(由陪审团作出)
上诉案件  case of trial of second instance; appellate case
申请人  petitioner, claimant
申诉案件  appeal case
申诉人(仲裁) claimant, plaintiff
受害人  victim
诉讼  litigation; action; lawsuit
开庭  in session
休庭  adjourn the court; in recess
宣判  pronounce judgement; determination
一审案件  case of trial of first instance
二审  second instance
仲裁  arbitration
裁定  order; determination (指最终裁定)
无罪判决  acquittal, finding of “not guilty”
无罪  innocence
有罪判决  sentence, finding of “guilty”
监禁  imprisonment
失职渎职  misconduct, dereliction of duty, malfeasance
部分内容来源自Whatsonweibo、《中华人民共和国刑法》中英版等,以上内容转自深圳比蓝翻译公司同传部


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